Underwiis


Lźzingen en artikels oer Frysk yn it ūnderwiis


-Teaching Frisian to adults and curricular innovation, lźzing yn Donostia/San Sebastian yn Baskelān, july 1998.

- Frysk yn it fuortset ūnderwiis yn it Būsboekje 2007, s. 20-23


Teaching Frisian to adults and curricular innovation

 

 

0. Introduction

"Būter, brea en griene tsiis, wa't dat net sizze kin is gjin oprjochte Fries." This is the shibolet which is pronounced by Frisian native speakers to make clear to non-Frisians what pronunciation is needed to be a real Frisian. Before I tell you about teaching Frisian to adults, first it is useful to describe the sociolinguistic and linguistic context of multilingual Friesland. At the end I am going to teach you the pronunciation of the shibolet.

 

1. The socio-geographical context

I start with the geographical position of Friesland in the European Union.

 

[transparant with overview minority languages in European Union and Fryslān in Europe]

 

The province of Friesland, or ‘Fryslān’ which is its official name since 1997, is one of the twelve provinces of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Geographically Friesland is in the North of the Netherlands, on the southern border of the North Sea. Most Frisian Isles are part of the province. The total population of the Netherlands is about 15.5 million, the population of Friesland only 617.000. This is less than 4 percent. Friesland is known in the Netherlands for its thin-populatedness; it mainly is a rural province. The biggest city (88.000 inhabitants) Leeuwarden/Ljouwert is the capital. It is one of the eleven official cities, which obtained city-rights during the Middle Ages. Most cities are quite small, most not bigger than 10.000 inhabitants. Then there are about 400 villages many with less than 1500 inhabitants: in these small village-communities the Frisian langauge has the strongest position. I tell you these details of living in Friesland because it is quite important for the learning of the Frisian language by adults. I return to this lateron.

    Another important factor to know is that Friesland is emigration province. Young people leave because of higher education and work. It makes that the educational level and income the population of Friesland is below the Dutch average and unemployment above this average. In Holland, the western part of the Netherlands, it is seen as peripherical region, without big industrial area’s, but full of green pastures and beautiful lakes for sailing during one's holidays. Agriculture and tourism are more than average sources for income for local people.

 

2. The political context

Friesland is part of the Netherlands since it joined Holland and other provinces in the Dutch Revolt against Spain in the sixteenth century. So, it was not taken by force but chose to be part of the federal union of seven independent provinces with Hollandic Dutch as its union language. Since the French Time the Netherlands became a centralistic state which it still is. In the period of Romantism the Frisian language movement started to promote the Frisian language, but even now after two centuries the position of state language Dutch still is very powerfull in Friesland. One of the reasons is that the provincial government has no special political rights, only some language politic rights which are given by the central government. Frisian is recognized upto a certain level. Two official languages are spoken: the state language Dutch and the provincial language Frisian. In order to explain to an outstander how the minority language Frisian relates to dominant language Dutch it first is enough to tell something about the competence and use of the minority language.

    Basically one can assume each Frisian speaker also speaks Dutch because of the social dominance of Dutch, so the Frisian speaker always is bilingual. On the other side there are however also Dutchspeakers who learned the language of the minority.

 

3. The (socio)linguistic contret

The following outline of the linguistic situation of Friesland is presented on the basis of survey results of the Fryske Akademy about competence and use of Frisian as well as the attitude of Frisian. Beside Frisian and Dutch some other regional varieties are spoken in the province of Friesland. In some rural municipalities non-Frisian dialects are spoken and in some towns socalled town-Frisian. The speakers of these different regional varieties are summerized for statistical reasons in the group 'regional varieties' (of Dutch).

 

3.1 Competence in Frisian

With the competence of a language one can differentiate between four skills: understanding, speaking, reading and writing. In order to give also an impression of the development within the last thirty years, in the following figures of 1967 (Pietersen 1969), 1980 (Gorter et al. 1984) and 1994 (Gorter & Jonkman 1995) are compared. The results of 1967 give somewhat higher figures than in reality in those years because for practical reasons the Frisian Isles and some Frisian towns (where above all non-Frisian dialects are spoken) were not included in the survey.

 

 

Table 1 The competence of Frisian 1967, 1980 and 1994 (in%)

 

                                              1967           1980           1994

 

              understand                97               94               94

              speak                         85               73               74

              read                           69               65               65

              write                          12               11               17

 

                                           (n=800)     (n=1126)    (n=1368)

 

 

As is to be seen from the graph, at first sight in the last thirty years there were no big changes concerning the results of understanding and reading. The proportion of whom speak Frisian in the seventies is decreased to 73 percent, but stabilized in the eighties. The command of written Frisian was for a long time about 11 percent, the last inquiry indicated however 17 percent. The share of inhabitants of Friesland who are able to speak the language is 75%: about 450.000 people can speak Frisian.

Allthough the differences between the individual results are relatively small in detail (the proportion of Frisian speakers has only changed insignificantly), the development of all aspects from 1967 to 1994 have changed significantly. The decrease within the range of understanding, speaking and reading and the upswing within writing cannot be charged to coincidence.

              A very important fact is the high percerntage of understanding of Frisian, only a small minority says not to do so. It is the result of the exposure of the non-nativespeakers to Frisian and the fact that both West-Germanic languages are linguistically close related. See the transparant for an example.

 

Example 1  Comparison Frisian - Dutch - English

 

Būter, brea en griene tsiis, wa't dat net sizze kin is gjin oprjochte Fries

Boter, brood en groene kaas, wie dat niet zeggen kan is geen oprechte Fries

Butter, bread and grien cheese, who that not say can is no real Frisian

 

There is not only similarity with English, but also much more with Dutch. It is only one sentence of course, but it will give you some idea about the relatedness and comprohensibility of both languages. The main differences are in the domain of phonology.

 

 

3.2 The command of Frisian related to native tongue

If one asks for the spoken and written command of Frisian, it is interesting to know what is the native language of the speaker. One can assume that a native speaker of Frisian learns to read and to write more easily. The native language is known by surveys for the years 1980 and 1994.

 

Table 2 Native language 1980 and 1994 (in %)

 

                                                                1980               1994

 

    Frisian                                                54                   55                      

    Dutch (‘standard’)                              31                   33   

    regional varieties                                 13                   11

    foreign language (e.g. German)              2                     2

 

    mei‑inoar                                           100                 101

 

As is to be seen from the table, there hardly was a change in the linguistic landscape of Friesland in fourteen years between 1980 and 1994. Somewhat more than half of the inhabitants of Friesland (55%) has Frisian as native language, a third (33%) speaks Dutch and a tenth (11%) one of the regional varieties. The proporition of foreign speakers is very small. If you compare the four skills of Frisian on basis of the mother tongue, remarkble differences between the three language groups show up.

 

 

Table 3 Command of Frisian and native language

 

                         oral                             written

                        understand speak  read   write                   n

native language

Frisian                100       100        79         26            (749)

Dutch                  85         36        46           6            (473)

regional varieties  94         64        50           5            (146)

 

average                 94         74        64         17          (1368)

 

 

As to be expected, all who have Frisian as a native tongue can understand and speak Frisian (100%) The interesting differences show up in this table between the two categories of whom do not speak Frisian as a native language: obviously the speakers of regional varieties (94%) can understand Frisian more than the Dutch speakers (85%). The results of speaking Frisian are even more remarkable. Almost two thirds (64%) of the speakers of regional varieties of Dutch have learned how to speak Frisan opposed to only somewhat more than one third (36%) of Dutch standard speakers who are able to do so. This probably has to do with the fact that allmost all dialect speakers are born in Friesland and the standard speakers only for one third.

As regarding to the written command of Frisian, it is a totally different case. It is by no means selfevident that Frisian speakers are able to read and write their mother tongue. There is not a real need to do so in Frisian society. Almost all Frisians can read and write better in Dutch because it hardly  was and is taught in primary and secondary education. 79% of the Frisian speakers can read their own language, a quarter (26%) can write Frisian. The share of the non-natives is much smaller. Only half can read Frisian (speakers of Standard Dutch 46% and dialect speakers 50%) and only a very small proportion can write Frisian: one out of twenty (5%).

 

 

3.4 The use of Frisian

De figures uptil now have showed quite clearly that a great part of the population in Friesland is able to speak Frisian as a first (55%) and a second language (20%). That does not mean that they actually do so in every situation. Whether someone speaks Frisian depends in the first place on the speech partner(s), but also on the formality of the situation.

When we look to the distribution of language use of Frisian over different domains or settigns, we see an uneven pattern. In the domains of the family, work and the village community, Frisian holds a strong position, because a majority of the population speaks Frisian. In the more formal domains of education, media, public administration and law, the use of Frisian has made inroads during the last decades, but overall the use is fairly limited.

The next figure contains a summary of twelve situations in public life where native (L1) and non-native (L2) speakers of Frisian have mentioned which language they spoke to the person.

 

Table 4   Use of Frisian as L1 an L2 in twelve situations (in %)

 

                                           Learners (T2)native Frisian speakers

 

Dutch tourist                            1                    4  

Dutch neighbours                     4                  19

medical specialist                     5                  22  

stranger in town                     13                  41

physican                                18                  56

mayor                                    22                  60

stranger at home-door            21                  68

policeman                              23                  71

teacher                                   31                  76

at postoffice                           32                  80

nearest neighbours                 41                  83

shop assistants                      42                  85

 

 

 

At the top there is a very small difference between the natives and non-natives. Speaking Frisian to a Dutch tourist is not done. To Dutch-speaking neighbours 19 percent of the native speakers of Frisian do speak Frisian in return, only some of the non-native speakers. A similar pattern occurs for a medical specialist; usually they have a Dutch language background and the situation is formal. In descending this "mountain graph" the gap between the two types of speakers widens in the proportion of use of Frisian in the selected situations. At the bottom we find that 85% of native speakers speak Frisian in the shop where they do their daily shopping.

Two other questions were about the language choice in return when asdressend in Frisian or in Dutch by a salesperson.

 

Table 5Language choice, according to a Frisian speaking salesperson and a Dutch speaking salesperson

 

                native Frisian speakers        native Dutch speakers

                Frisian     not Frisian          Frisian  not Frisian

addressed in

               

Frisian      98               2                        33                   67

Dutch       22             78                          2                   98

 

At the lefthand side of the graph we can see that when a salesperson addresses the respondent in Frisian, almost all Frisian speakers (native speakers) will also use Frisian in return (98%). When the salesperson speaks Dutch to this same group, more than three quarters of the Frisian speakers converges to the shop-assistant and also uses Dutch. Still 22 percent do speak Frisian in case of a Dutch speaking shop assistant. For all of the others, also non-learners of Frisian, there is a totally different outcome. 33 percent (42% of the total is able to speak Frisian) claim to speak Frisian in return when addressed in Frisian and almost 100% claim to speak Dutch when addressed in Dutch.

 

And here we are confronted by a special social phenomenon, which is also known in other bilingual communities where the two languages are quite related. Both speech partners stick to their own languages; so there is codeswitching all conversation long. For the teaching of Frisian to adults it means that speakers of Dutch can be a member of the bilingual community of Friesland by only having a receptive oral competence and most non-nativespeakers who are born in Friesland do learn to understand (and mostly also to speak) already by their playmates during childhood. Since 1980 there is also some stimulation by the primary schools and since 1993 by secondary schools.

 

3.5 The context for learning Frisian as a second language

I have tried to make clear in this sociolinguistic introduction that Frisian has its strongest position in informal settings. We can find this in the reasons why non-native speakers of Frisian tell what their motivation is to learn to speak Frisian. In the language use survey of the Fryske Akademy (Gorter & Jonkman 1995) this was asked to the learners.

 

Table 6 Reasons for learning Frisian

 

                                                  %           (n)

mainly for social association      58       (167)

no special reason                      21         (60)

mainly for work                         9         (25)

mainly for fun                            5         (14)

other reasons                              8         (23)

 

total                                        101       (289)

 

 

It is in the social life of the village-community which is the social pressure to learn the language. It is not by formal classes that Frisian is learned, but from people in the social network.

 

After this description of the sociolinguistic and linguistic situation of multilingual Friesland we now can go into the question of teaching Frisian to adults in this environment of small external economic pressure to learn the minority language and the presence of the dominant state language Dutch.

 

I make the switch by an illustration of the power relationship between the Frisian and the Dutch language group by explaining this cartoon to you.

 

On top it says: speaking of Frisian free?

Some people think that because the Netherlands - and so Friesland - is a very tolerant country which allows you to use your own language anywhere, but this cartoon wants to make clear that there are many social constraints which are big structural obstacles for an individual to do so. First there is the dominance of the Dutch language group - the hight of right person - and the higher average social position of the Dutch speakers - the hat and sigar - that make that in this unequal relationship it is difficult for a minorityspeaker to use his language. Semy-liberal the big one - backed up by the tool of social pressure - simply can tell the tiny one: If you really want to use that funny language Frisian of yours, it is all up to you. The learning of Frisian by an adult in a course - and the use of it after the course - is in most cases also all up to him.

 

4. The educational context

The position of Frisian in education depends on the overall Dutch matix of education. The Netherlands do not have a national curriculum and obligatory national tests at the end of primary education are not in litterary accordance with the law. Public and private schools have the right and the duty to realize the intentions of the law in their own way and under their own responsinbility. This freedom of education has in many cases negative implications for Frisian. The facilities for education in Frisian in the regular education system were enlarged little by little after the thirties. In 1937 education of Frisian was allowed in primary schools within the framework of education of a Dutch dialect anywhere in the Netherlands. In the fifties - after some riots in Leeuwarden for the right of Frisian in courts  - bilingual schools which had started shortly after the second world war were legalized by the Modified Act on Primary Education for the Netherlands in 1955.

Frisian is since 1980 an obligatory subject for the Frisian language as such, but under educational freedom the government will not prescribe guidelines as to how Frisian should be taught and how many classroom hours should be spent on Frisian as a subject. Research made clear that in many primary schools in Friesland the number of hours spent on Frisian is limited to a minimum of 30 or 45 minutes per week in every grade.

            The same consequences hold for Frisian as a medium of instruction. Primary schools have the legal rights to teach any subject in Frisian; however, until now the great majority of schools have implemented Frisian only as a medium of instruction for subjects with a lower prestige, for instance biology or history.

            In secondary schools only one hour of Frisian is thaught only in the first year. It hardly functions as a medium of instruction. Just a few pupils choose to have Frisian in the examclasses.

And also it is again the individual teacher, if he realy wants himself to do so, who has to contest the Dutch matrix in order to teach Frisian to his pupils. We now turn over to the adults.

 

5. Adult courses in Frisian

5.1 Afūk

The professional institute for Frisian courses for adults is the Afūk: Algemiene Fryske Underrjocht Kommisje=General Frisian Commission for Education) (Jelsma 1996). It was founded in 1928 with the aim of promoting Frisian Education in and outside the schools, because Frisian was not permitted as a subject in schools at that time. So the Afūk set itself to organize courses for schoolchildren after their regular school hours: in the thirties about 1000 schoolchildren participated in those courses each year. At the same time the Afūk negotiated with the Dutch government for widening the facilities for education in the Frisian language. In the courses of time however the Afūk changed from an organization which was largely motivated by Frisian movement ideology to an organization which was purely aimed at provision of education in Frisian (including materials) everywhere it was needed. Now in the nineties there are in the Afūk course institute (and publishinghouse) twelve employees and 60 part-time teachers who instruct on average 1000 aldults in 100 courses each year.

 

5.2 Curricular innovation

Since regular education took over the education of Frisian to children the Afūk concentrates on courses for adults, at first for Frisian speakers (to learn to read and write their own language), but since the fifties - when huge numbers of Dutch speakers moved into Friesland - for non-Frisians too. This curricular innovation was about the differentiation to linguistic background of the learners. Uptil then the courses had as its aim Frisian speakers to learn them to read and spell Frisian. There was no great need to teach them Frisian as such because they already spoke correct Frisian, so without a lot of Dutch interferences. Their idiom reflected (rural) live of those years and Frisian could cope with this situation.

Another curricular innovation is related to ideology. Uptil the fifties next to the learning of reading and writing Frisian the Institute saw it as its task to promote the Frisian community: teach the Frisian students appreciation for their own natural environment and the general traditional aspects of the Frisian people. Nowadays the afūk organizes a range of courses, depending on what people want to learn and on how fast they want to learn. There is much more differentiation to the target group or even to the needs of the individual.

Another aspect is that Frisian moved away from the monolinguistic reserve before the fifties into a multilinguistic modern society. Because Frisian and Dutch are very close related there are huge amount of linguistic interferences of Dutch in Frisian. So, courses should also improve the quality of Frisian, for instance by extending attention to correct Frisian and idiom which reflects modern (urban) live.

The vision on the Frisian language changed from seeing Frisian mainly as a cultural phenomenon (literature, theatre, history) to a communicative tool which should be used in all domains of society. The curricular innovation of the Afūk has to do with this change in thinking about language. A model for learning a second language that has received more attention in Friesland for curricular innovation is the one of Krashen (e.g. Krashen and Terell 1983): the natural approach. Krashen differentiates between language acquisition, i.e. the natural learning of the language as a child, and the concious learning of a language as a system of rules, the school approach. Krashen prefers the natural communicative approach. There is a natural order in what is learned first, second, etc. This is stored in the language acquisition centre. First simple words and sentences, then the more difficult ones, lateron the systematic differences between present and past tense. The more complex part of the language comes after the easy input. The monitor of the acquisition centre is in control over the storage and the usage of correct linguistic rules. When a mistake is made, there is feedback to the centre until the rule is stored correctly. The more complex the input, the more the monitor has to be used. The use of the monitor concerns the language learning activities. Students who are less spontaneous in their speaking can have more support from language learning activities. The implicature of the choice for the natural approach is that the courses for non-native speakers of Frisian are firstly concentrated on language acquisition. But there also is a consequence for the other course materials where more language learning activities are required. Also learning activities are accommodated to the acquisition activities to make a lower treshold by adjusting these to the daily reality of the student. The learning can become more efficient.

Another curricular innovation to make the learning of a language more efficient and accommodated to the individual student is to cut a whole course into separate parts which form a unity in itself: modules, e.g. grammatical rules, spelling, idiom, translating, reading, etc.

The evaluation of teachers and students in general was positive, because the lessons were more practical, modern and mature. However, the first type of moduling was evaluated as "childish" because the treshold was lowered to far.

 

5.3 Courses for adults

There are about twenty different courses.

They can be divided into five main streams according to the target group.

a) courses for non-Frisian speakers who wish or need to have a receptive command of Frisian (to learn to read and understand the language). These courses are mainly attended by new residents;

b) courses for non-Frisian speakers who wish or need to have to have productive command of Frisian, e.g. employees who are daily contact with Frisian speaking citizens because of their job. Normally non-Frisian speakers participate in two six-month_ courses in order to learn to understand, read and speak Frisian. They can participate in an intensive course too of an half year or in a quick course of two full weeks.

c) courses for Frisian speakers who wish or need to learn to write Frisian for their job, but also by people who participate for private reasons (to use Frisian in the family or social organizations) or just for pleasure;

d) Short-run courses on special subjects which have to do with the Frisian culture in the broad sense: Frisian literature, history, Old Frisian, sociolinguistics and assertivity in language use.

e) special courses for specific target groups, e.g. civil servants, judicial staff, doctors and nursing staff, broadcasting staff, journalists, library staff, etc. All these courses are structured according to the specific needs of the group.

 

A special activity of the Afūk is the compiling of one Frisian page, an advertorial, every week in the two - almost totally written in Dutch - dailies of Friesland. This page contains news, interesesting items and background stories on Frisian cultural events. The page is aimed at an audience of people who want to try to begin or rehearse their Frisian reading.

In the main newspaper there also is a saily cartoon of two people: one using incorrect Dutch-influenced Frisian and the other correct Frisian.

 

To give you a concreet idea about the modernization of the course I tell you something more about four courses: an introduction course, a quick course for non-natives, an assertivity course for standing up for the right to speak Frisian and an introduction course a specific course for civil servants.

 

Nij yn Fryslān (1994): New in Friesland. This is a course for new residents who come to live in Friesland. A video shows the sociolinguistic situation of the province and gives a first introduction about the Frisian language and its history. In the accompanying booklet some tasks are given to rehearse some aspects of the language. The goal of the introduction course is to tell the new residents that Friesland is multilingual and they are welcome to join this multilingualism. And they can do so by learning Frisian by a course.

 

Bekjegau (1990): Quickmouth

A course to teach Dutchspeakers to speak Frisian in a relative short period (half a year/ twice a week intensive course)

 

The course is given in a small group. The students should be able to understand and read Frisian. They are asked to rehearse these skills outside the classroom by watching, reading and listening to the Frisian media. The idea behind the course is that the students learn the language like a child does, based on the model of Krashen: listening, memorizing and trying to pronounce new words. So, the course is give in Frisian, the teacher only repeating in Dutch some things which are not totally clear.

Three types of exercises support this natural way of learning:

 

Idiom

A great number of words about one theme, e.g. drinking coffee, have to be learned by heart. Some words resamble Dutch words.

 

Rules

Children learn the rules unintentional in several years. Adults can learn some rules easier and quicker intentionally, for instance the flection of verbs.

 

Small talk exercises

Starting from the first lesson students have to say simple phrases like "Here it is" and "Thank you". They are allowed to use Dutch words. Students are stimulated to go over the treshold of being afraid about not kwowing the word or wrong pronounciation. Housework is writing things down not for learning the spelling but to formulate sentences. The main part of the lessons is in small groups to do the talk exercises.

 

 

Omgean mei it Frysk/How to handle with Frisian (1985-1990)

No book is available for this course. The course was given by a teacher who had experiences in assertivity courses for women. The goal was to make Frisian speakers more assertive about their rights to use Frisian in public situations like meetings. Sometimes Frisian speakers are forbidden to speak Frisian, because someone says not to understand Frisian. In role play of several social situations the students could react to the forbidding of Frisian speaking.

 

 

De oerstap (1983) the change

Course for civil-servants for Frisian in official affairs

 

Since the seventies the use of Frisian is steadily growing in the provincial and municipality offices. Because there are no standard variants of Dutch official idiom this has to be created; it is linguistically pionering.  There still is resistance against the new phenomenon. The history of Frisian in official affairs which is presented in the coursebook can give the student an insight in its own position on the road to emancipation. So not only creativity is needed but also perservarence. Next to the regular idiom which is already available a lot of Dutch official texts and certificates with not available idiom are in the book. The students have to create new Frisian idiom which is suitable for this domain.

 

6. Closure

The ultimate succes of all the mentioned courses is at the first place very much depending on the individual. As said before in presenting the cartoon with the big and the tiny man the social position of the dominant Dutch language group makes that the use of Frisian is always under social pressure. Uptil politics has changed the political context the Netherlands matrix will remain. All the same, there is a stimulus to speak Frisian in a lot of situations in Friesland, but there are also linguistically mixed situations, for instance public meetings, where speaking Frisian is evaluated as inappropriate. It is the assertivity of individuals who contest the matrix of the Dutch language in those settings.

 

Now at the end of my lecture I want to contest the matrix of the English language for this setting and try to teach you that pronunciation of the Frisian shibolet: "Būter, brea en griene tsiis, wa't dat net sizze kin is gjin oprjochte Fries."

 

 

 


 

References

 

Durk Gorter et al (1984), Taal yn Fryslān. Ljouwert/Leeuwarden.

Durk Gorter en Reitze J. Jonkman, Taal yn Fryslān op 'e nij besjoen [=Language in Friesland revisited]. Ljouwert/Leeuwarden 1995.

Gjalt Jelsma (1992), 'Kursusūntwikkeling Afūk' [Curricular Innovation Afūk] In: De pompeblźden 63, no 1, pp. 16-18.

Gjalt Jelsma (1996), Introduction to the Afūk. In: The Learning Community, pp. 7-9.

Stephen D. Krashen and Trasy D. Terell (1983), The Natural approach. Language acquisition in the classroom. Oxford, etc.

Lieuwe Pietersen (1969), De Friezen en hun taal [=The Frisians and their language]. Drachten.

 

 

Some titles of Frisian course materials.

 

Wolkom. (1996) With audiocassettes with text on ordinary subjects.

A-boek (1995) Mainly modules for writing in ordinary situations

Janny van der Veen en Bouke Oldenhof (1990), Bekjegau. Materiaal foar kursussen Frysk foar net-Frysktaligen. Ljouwert.

Gjalt Jelsma (Ed.)(1983), De Oerstap. Taalboek Frysk yn it offisjele ferkear. Ljouwert. [The Change. Course for civil servants for Frisian in official affairs]

Nij yn Fryslān. Een introductie in de Friese taal (1994) [=New in Friesland. An introduction to the Frisian Language] Videotape with booklet

< HR>

 


 

Frysk yn it fuortset ūnderwiis

 

Yn 1974 frege śs dekaan fan it Nassau Kolleezje op It Hearrenfean yn de klasse oft der minsken wienen dy’t Frysk yn it eksamenpakket ha woenen. Fansels daliks de hān omheech stutsen. Dźrmei haw iksels fuortdaliks profitearre fan de nije mooglikheden dy’t der kamen foar it Frysk op de middelbere skoalle. Oan dan ta wie it benammen gien oer it Frysk op de legere skoalle, Pedagogyske Akademys en universiteit.

 

Sūnt 1971 wie it nammentlik tusken noas en lippen  - “Waarom eigenlijk ook niet”, hie de  steatssiktaris fan ūnderwiis sein – mooglik wurden om Frysk yn it eksamenpakket te kiezen yn havo en vwo. De mavo folge yn 1973. De belangstelling foar it fak yn havo hat ein santiger en begjin tachtiger jierren fan de foarige ieu net ūnaardich west mei op it hichtepunt mear as hūndert kandidaten. Dźr is in hiele direkte link te lizzen mei de ferplichting fan it Frysk yn it basisūnderwiis yn 1980 en dźrmei it ferlet fan havisten dy’t nei de PA gongen. sy hienen it Frysk yn har berop fan learkrźft nedich. By vwo gong en giet it hieltyd om lytse tallen, de echte leafhawwers. Foar in soad middelbere skoallen wienen dy lytse tallen in te hege drompel om Frysk yn it eksamenpakket op te nimmen. It Nassau, no Bornego, Kolleezje biedt it fak net mear oan. De kristlike en iepenbiere mavo (nei  ynfiering fan it vmbo: mingd en teoretyske learwei), fan Burgum wienen kreatyf en setten de learlingen fan beide skoallen yn ien klasse en hawwe sa troch de jierren regelmjittich kandidaten mei Frysk yn it pakket ōflevere.

Sūnt 1980 wie der wakker aksje ūndernommen om it Frysk oanslutend op de basisskoalle yn de ūnderbou fan it fuortset ūnderwiis ferplichte krijen foar alle learlingen. Dat slagge yn 1993 doe’t it in plakje krige yn de saneamde basisfoarming, de earste twa of trije jier fan de middelskoalle. De bedoeling wie om alle trije jier twa oeren Frysk te krijen. De direksjes fan de skoallen keazen der lykwols foar dat elke skoalle mar ien lesoere, faak yn it earste jier, joech. De winst wie wol wer dat alle learlingen – Frysktalige en net-Frysktalige – Frysk ūnderwiis krigen. Mar noch mear as op de basisskoalle hie de dosint it dreech, omdat de heterogeniteit hast net grutter koe. De middelbere skoallen steane meast yn de gruttere plakken mei in oanmerklik grut part net-Frysktaligen dy’t boppedat hast gjin ūnderwiis yn it Frysk hān hawwe. De spesjaal ūntwikkele nije metoade Flotwei Frysk, hoe moai at er der fierder ek śtseach, hold te min rekken mei dy minging fan taalachtergrūnen. It ynspeksjerapport fan 1998 liet net in florissant byld sjen; it fak Frysk hie in hiel marzjinaal plak yn de basisfoarming. Ek it ynspeksjerapport 2005 lit mar in bytsje foarśtgong sjen. Mei de komst fan de nije ūnderbou yn 2006 sil wer in nije start makke wurde mei in metoade dy’t mear rekkenet mei de differinsjaasje neffens taalachtergrūn.

De hoop is no dat nei it ferplichte fak yn de earste klasse, de learlingen oanslutend yn de twadde (en tredde) klasse it Frysk as karfak nimme om it dźrnei as ien fan de fakken yn it ōfslutende eksamenpakket op te nimmen.

 

Skoallen foar  fuortset ūnderwiis mei Frysk as eksamenfak

havo/vwo

vmbo mingd/teoretyske learwei

Piter Jelles, Ljouwert

Dockinga, Dokkum

Singelland, Drachten

Bogerman, Snits

Piter Jelles, St Anne

Ulbe van Houten, St Anne

Singelland, Burgum

Liudger, Burgum

Boargemaster Harmsmaskoalle, De Gordyk

Lyndensteijn, Beetstersweach

Marne Kolleezje, Boalsert

Gaasterlān, Balk

Bogerman Koudum en Wommels

 

It Frysk hat by de ynfiering fan de saneamde twadde faze (1999) syn plak as karfak holden. By havo waard it boppedat mooglik om te kiezen foar in lytsfak dźr’t allinnich taalkunde (staverjen, taaleigen, grammatika) ynsiet. Der wienen fjouwer skoallen dźr’t it Frysk him konsintrearre: Dockinga Dokkum, Piter Jelles Ljouwert, Singelland Drachten en Bogerman Snits. Dy lźste skoalle is dwaande om in trochgeande learline fan de nije ūnderbou foar alle skoaltypen oant en mei it eksamenjier mooglik te meitsjen. Om it jaan fan it fak Frysk fuort te sterkjen jout de Provinsje subsydzje.

Foar in nije start fan de twadde faze yn 2007 steane foar it fak Frysk gruttere feroaringen op priemmen. Net allinnich ferdwynt it fak Frysk as lytsfak wer yn it havo, mar nźst Fryske taal en letterkunde mei alle ūnderdielen fan de hjoeddeiske opset, komt der in śtwreiding mei kultuer. Learlingen kinne dan, yn it plak fan taal en letterkunde, kieze foar kultuer om har  te ferdjipjen yn de Fryske skiednis, sporten, de taalsosjologyske situaasje, būtenlānske minderheidstalen, ensfh. Dy kultuerkant kin ek makliker keazen wurde troch net-Frysktaligen, omdat fan harren gjin aktive Fryske taalfeardichheid ferwachte wurdt.

Fierders wurdt der no ynsetten op it Frysk as fiertaal by oare fakken. It is nammentlik yn de wet fan 1971 fźstlein dat it Frysk ek fiertaal wźze mei. Yn 1999 hat 30 persint fan de middelskoallen oanjūn dat śt en troch te dwaan. It taalsintrum Frysk fan Cedin (earder GCO-fryslān en MSŪ) spilet dźr mei de skoalletelevyzje fan Omrop Fryslān ek op yn troch net allinnich programma’s foar it fak Frysk ‘Linkk’ te meitsjen mar ek Frysktalige programma’s foar ierdrykskunde , biology en skiednis.

 

RJJ

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